The Following was written by New Hampshire state Rep. Daniel Itse

“General good”, “common good”, “common benefit”, “general welfare” – these are all expressions of the most misunderstood concept in American politics.

Ask a progressives what these phrases mean and they will tell you that the government must make sure everyone has a good outcome. Ask conservatives what these phrases mean and they will tell you that every law must affect everyone equally at the time it is enacted. However, if you asked John Locke, the originator of the concept what they mean, he would tell you something quite different.

In his Second Treatise on Government, Lock explains the concept of common good quite articulately. Every man is born equally into a state of nature in which he has full legislative,
executive and judicial jurisdiction to protect his life, liberty and property; and no man can be put under the governance of another except by his own consent. However, in this state of nature we can lack a set of common laws, we may be without an objective judge (for every man is likely be biased to his own favor) and we may be unable to enforce punishment, and therefore, we establish governments to exercise our powers objectively. The end result of this government is to be the common good. We see this concept explicitly enumerated in about half of the original state constitutions and the Constitution for the United States of America.

In The Constitution of the State of New Hampshire, you find this concept encapsulated it is in Article 1 of the Part the First, the Bill of Rights; “All men are born equally free and independent; Therefore, all government of right originates from the people, is founded in consent, and instituted for the general good.“

Locke goes on to explain that no individual enters into a state of civil society except that ”it being only with an intention in every one the better to preserve himself, his liberty and
property; (for no rational creature can be supposed to change his condition with an intention to be worse) the power of the society, or legislative constituted by them, can never be supposed to extend farther, than the common good; but is obliged to secure every one’s property, by providing against those three defects above mentioned, that made the state of nature so unsafe and uneasy.“

To put it in more contemporary terms, in order for a law to comply with the concept of general or common good, the genera l welfare, it must leave each member of the community in a better state than if there were no law and no government. Any statute which does not meet this acid test is no law under the most fundamental concepts of American government, the Lockean social contract.

The 10th Amendment

“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”



Featured Articles

On the Constitution, history, the founders, and analysis of current events.

featured articles


Tenther Blog and News

Nullification news, quick takes, history, interviews, podcasts and much more.

tenther blog


State of the Nullification Movement

232 pages. History, constitutionality, and application today.

get the report


Path to Liberty

Our flagship podcast. Michael Boldin on the constitution, history, and strategy for liberty today

path to liberty


Maharrey Minute

The title says it all. Mike Maharrey with a 1 minute take on issues under a 10th Amendment lens. maharrey minute

Tenther Essentials

2-4 minute videos on key Constitutional issues - history, and application today


Join TAC, Support Liberty!

Nothing helps us get the job done more than the financial support of our members, from just $2/month!



The 10th Amendment

History, meaning, and purpose - the "Foundation of the Constitution."

10th Amendment



Get an overview of the principles, background, and application in history - and today.