ANNAPOLIS, Md. (March 20, 2023) – On Saturday, the Maryland House passed a bill that would place some modest limits on government use of facial recognition technology.
Del. David Moon (D) and Del. Sara Love (D) introduced House Bill 223 (HB223) on Jan. 23. The proposed law would limit the use of facial recognition to the investigation of certain crimes, including “crimes of violence,” human trafficking, child abuse, and a criminal act “involving circumstances presenting a substantial and ongoing threat to public safety or national security.” When used in such an investigation, facial recognition could not be used as the sole basis to establish probable cause.
Results generated by facial recognition could only be introduced as evidence in a criminal proceeding to establish probable cause or a positive identification in connection with a warrant or at a preliminary hearing.
HB223 would ban the use of facial recognition on individuals “engaged in activity protected under the United States Constitution, the Maryland Constitution, or the Maryland Declaration of Rights” unless there is reasonable suspicion to believe the individual has committed a crime. It would also prohibit using facial recognition on a sketch or manually produced image, and it would ban the use of facial recognition for live or real-time identification.
HB223 would require any law enforcement agency using facial recognition technology to complete a detailed annual report. This would increase the transparency surrounding the use of facial recognition in Maryland.
While passage into law would not end government use of facial recognition in Maryland, it would set the foundation by setting some initial limits on the technology and preventing ongoing surveillance using facial recognition.
On March 18, the House passed HB223 by a 135-0 vote.
IMPACT ON FEDERAL PROGRAMS
A 2019 report revealed that the federal government has turned state driver’s license photos into a giant facial recognition database, putting virtually every driver in America in a perpetual electronic police lineup. The revelations generated widespread outrage, but the story wasn’t new. The federal government has been developing a massive facial recognition system for years.
The FBI rolled out a nationwide facial recognition program in the fall of 2014, with the goal of building a giant biometric database with pictures provided by the states and corporate friends.
In 2016, the Center on Privacy and Technology at Georgetown Law released “The Perpetual Lineup,” a massive report on law enforcement use of facial recognition technology in the U.S. You can read the complete report at perpetuallineup.org. The organization conducted a year-long investigation and collected more than 15,000 pages of documents through more than 100 public records requests. The report paints a disturbing picture of intense cooperation between the federal government, and state and local law enforcement to develop a massive facial recognition database.
“Face recognition is a powerful technology that requires strict oversight. But those controls, by and large, don’t exist today,” report co-author Clare Garvie said. “With only a few exceptions, there are no laws governing police use of the technology, no standards ensuring its accuracy, and no systems checking for bias. It’s a wild west.”
Despite the outrage generated by these reports, Congress has done nothing to roll back this facial recognition program.
There are many technical and legal problems with facial recognition, including significant concerns about the accuracy of the technology, particularly when reading the facial features of minority populations. During a test run by the ACLU of Northern California, facial recognition misidentified 26 members of the California legislature as people in a database of arrest photos.
With facial recognition technology, police and other government officials have the capability to track individuals in real time. These systems allow law enforcement agents to use video cameras and continually scan everybody who walks by. According to the report, several major police departments have expressed an interest in this type of real-time tracking. Documents revealed agencies in at least five major cities, including Los Angeles, either claimed to run real-time face recognition off of street cameras, bought technology with the capability, or expressed written interest in buying it.
In all likelihood, the federal government heavily involves itself in helping state and local agencies obtain this technology. The feds provide grant money to local law enforcement agencies for a vast array of surveillance gear, including ALPRs, stingray devices and drones. The federal government essentially encourages and funds a giant nationwide surveillance net and then taps into the information via fusion centers and the Information Sharing Environment (ISE).
Fusion centers were sold as a tool to combat terrorism, but that is not how they are being used. The ACLU pointed to a bipartisan congressional report to demonstrate the true nature of government fusion centers: “They haven’t contributed anything meaningful to counterterrorism efforts. Instead, they have largely served as police surveillance and information sharing nodes for law enforcement efforts targeting the frequent subjects of police attention: Black and brown people, immigrants, dissidents, and the poor.”
Fusion centers operate within the broader ISE. According to its website, the ISE “provides analysts, operators, and investigators with information needed to enhance national security. These analysts, operators, and investigators…have mission needs to collaborate and share information with each other and with private sector partners and our foreign allies.” In other words, ISE serves as a conduit for the sharing of information gathered without a warrant. Known ISE partners include the Office of Director of National Intelligence which oversees 17 federal agencies and organizations, including the NSA. ISE utilizes these partnerships to collect and share data on the millions of unwitting people they track.
Reports that the Berkeley Police Department in cooperation with a federal fusion center deployed cameras equipped to surveil a “free speech” rally and Antifa counterprotests provided the first solid link between the federal government and local authorities in facial recognition surveillance.
In a nutshell, without state and local cooperation, the feds have a much more difficult time gathering information. The passage of state laws and local ordinances banning and limiting facial recognition eliminates one avenue for gathering facial recognition data. Simply put, data that doesn’t exist cannot be entered into federal databases.
HB223 will move to the Senate for further consideration. At the time of this report, it had not been referred to a Senate committee. Once it receives a committee assignment, it must get a hearing pass by a majority vote before moving forward in the legislative process.